A Brief History of Industrial Machining

The term “machining” refers to any of a number of processes by which raw material is cut, ground, or otherwise mechanically/physically transformed into a desired final shape via controlled material removal. Sometimes referred to as “subtractive machining,” the basic process has been used since the first caveman sharpened a stick on a rock to create a makeshift spear. In the more modern sense, machining has been used extensively since the 18th century CE and is a major part of manufacturing and other industrial processes.

The Meaning of Machining

Prior to Ye Olde Industrial Revolution, a “machinist” was a dude who built and/or repaired machines, work that was done almost exclusively by hand. By the middle of the 19th century, industry all around the world was revolting and the definition of “machinist” had become more akin to what we think of now—someone who machines material into an end product, part, or component via turning, drilling, boring, sawing, shaping, etc. Early machine tools such as lathes, drill presses, and milling machines helped launch the first wave of modern machinists.

The lathe dates back to ancient Egypt, but did not become mechanically powered—and thus far more powerful and useful—until the Industrial Revolution. The earliest lathes can be traced back to roughly 1300 BCE. These lathes were operated by a two-person team, one of whom turned the wooden workpiece with a length of rope, while the other cut shapes into the wood with sharp tools. Pedal power replaced hand-operated lathes by the Middle Ages. The first true machine lathe was a horizontal boring machine installed at the British Royal Arsenal in 1772. The horse-powered machine was used to manufacture cannons used in the Revolutionary War. So, ultimately, not a huge success.

An early mechanical lathe (circa 1919) from a Canadian metalworking factory.

An early mechanical lathe (circa 1919) from a Canadian metalworking factory.

Very early humanoids invented the first drills circa 35,000 BCE. (What highs and lows humanity has experienced in the millennia since!) These first rudimentary drills were little more than pointed sticks that were rubbed between the palms—flint points were sometimes attached. Bow- or strap-drills were developed approximately 10,000 years ago, and were primarily used to create fire. Augers were first used to drill (or dig) large holes in the heyday of the Roman Empire. The drill press was derived from the bow-drill, and early models were windmill- or water wheel-powered. The invention of the electric motor in the late 1800s led to the invention of the electric drill and drill press, early versions of which are not all that much different than those we use today.

Machining Today

While some aspects of machining equipment have remained largely the same, there are other devices that would have been wholly unimaginable to Industrial Revolutionaries. Fully-automated, CNC-powered machining centers can now do the work of a dozen or more men in a fraction of the time, and even have the capability change out their own tools if, for example, a drill bit breaks mid-operation. New machining methods, like electrical discharge machining, make full use of technologies that were barely even conceived of in the 1800s. Even the machine enclosures used today, with soundproofing, temperature control, air-cleaning HVAC systems, and other advanced features, are technological marvels by Industrial Revolution standards.

Photo credit: Internet Archive Book Images via Foter.com / No known copyright restrictions